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Recommendation for the sustainable management of heritage and tourism in Hahoe Village, Lijiang, Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, 8-18 October 2001 


The participants of the UNESCO conference/Workshop on “Culturer Heritage Management and Tourism: Models for Cooperation among Stakeholders” recognize that:

  • Continuous dialogue and effort to build consensus among stakeholders are essential for the sustainable management of heritage and tourism and the involvement of local residents is most important in the case of living sites, as set out in various international instruments including the Charter on the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (ICOMOS, 1987) as well as the International Charter of Cultural Tourism (ICOMOS, 1999),
  • It was the first important step toward this direction that three main stakeholder groups, namely Andong Municipality, Hahoe Village Conservation Association and the scholars/experts group, jointly presented a paper and cooperated together to make an action plan at the Bhaktapur workshop in April 2000,
  • It is regrettable that this action plan which recommends establishment of the Hahoe Heritage Research and Planning Institute has been set aside without being implemented nor being reviewed,
  • It is a concern that the volume of visitors, which is already considerable and putting pressures on the residents, maybe further increased under the municipal and provincial governments’ policy to promote this area as cultural tourism zone related to Confucian culture,
  • The new tourist zone which was set up by the municipality to relocate food stalls and shops from the heritage area to this new zone and which was meant to solve this situation has been questioned for its effectiveness by some local residents; There is dissatisfaction among the local residents because of the lack of consultation by authorities,
  • There is a need to examine the current situation of the village designated and protected as “Folklore Material” under the national law, because we understand that historic villages need special attention for integrated protection measures as fragile living sites encompassing not only architectural/material conservation aspects but also rural/socio-economic planning,
  • The World Heritage Committee is now strongly support the adjustment of previous heritage classifications to recognize that historic towns and villages should be carefully managed as living communities to ensure the continuing sustainability of their traditional culture.

The participants feel strongly that there are urgent needs to:

  • Introduce integrated and harmonized concepts suitable for living heritage sites regarding management, conservation and tourism for the protection of Hahoe village
  • Make an urgent study to identify the intangible heritage in the village which is disappearing or which is being neglected or transformed under the pressure of mass tourism, and to provide appropriate protection measures,
  • Make a feasibility study to request the heritage administration to review the current situation on Hahoe village designated as “Folklore Material” under the national law and its appropriateness as a living heritage site, based on a careful study on the heritage value and its appropriate protection measures as a widely based interdisciplinary effort, including case studies of foreign countries' examples.
  • Examine various alternative solutions to control the number of tourists including methods such as an advanced-booking or guided-tour system with/without higher entry fees, including the reexamination of the effectiveness of the new tourist zone,
  • Examine various alternative ways of using historic buildings for residents’ own choice of functions, such as by introducing a rental system or buy-back arrangement by public-private organizations targeted at uses such as workshops for artists rather than simple uses as souvenir shops or restaurants,

Therefore we recommend that the authorities responsible for the protection of Hahoe village take the following steps:

  • Establish a standing committee composed of representatives from both the authorities and the community as well as experts and scholars from various fields to provide a framework for their continuous and smooth communication to discuss the above-mentioned issues,
  • Support an independent study group of scholars and professionals to conduct research to provide information on the above-mentioned issues including an international comparative study of villages with similar conditions.

We the participants agreed as proposed by the Hahoe study leader to form a small group of scholar/experts to conduct a joint-study based on particular international instruments and practices.

Action Plan for Hahoe Village, Korea Adopted on 18 October 2001, Lijiang, China

  • UNESCO Bankok Office to write to UNESCO Korea , endorsing the project, seeking their assisting and requesting that they approach relevant National Commissions to endorse the assistance and involvement of the international expert panel. Also send them a copy of the Lijiang Conference Proceedings.
  • Experts to seek any form of available support from their own countries to enhance their voluntary participation in this project.
  • Professor Kim to build close working relationship with local community, local officials and countries to build research effort and comparative studies of similar villages in order to expand significance to living traditional village.
  • Professor Kim to liaise with International Expert Panel to review and refine report.
  • Prepare report considered for submission to World Heritage nomination, UNESCO Korea invite relevant Korean heritage agencies as observers to WH meetings.
  • UNESCO to stage an international conference, based around traditional villages, with the objective of raising awareness with Korean heritage agencies about the potential to reclassify and manage as traditional living village.


  • UNESCO Bankok to UNESCO Korea
    by 15 November 2001
  • UNESCO Korea to UNESCO National Commissions
    In relevant countries
    by 30 November 2001
  • Detailed liaison with stakeholders and research report,
    Supported by International Experts
    by June 30 2001
  • Submission of final report to UNESCO Korea
    by 31 December 2002
  • Potential international conference/workshop
    by 31 March 2003