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Country Case Studies

Country cases studies collected or compiled in this Portal showcase a wide range of experience from all over the world on the medium-term expenditure framework.  

Ever since the concept of medium-term expenditure framework emerged in the late 1990s, a growing number of countries have designed and applied their own MTEF planning. This has yielded a significant amount of experience from which all countries can learn.     

Whilst basic conceptual features of MTEFs, particularly those of recent years, are quite similar in many countries, MTEFs differ significantly when it comes to specific aspects of the process, the format and presentation of the MTEF document, and details of implementation of monitoring systems.

These differences are due mainly to the specific regulatory framework of each country concerning fiscal and budget laws, central and decentralized budgeting and expenditure management including expenditure tracking. Sometimes they are also due to a particularly active partnership between national planning and finance authorities and major international funding partners.

This Portal presents case studies, reports and reviews of MTEF in a specific country or region; examples of MTEF documents prepared by governments; and in-depth case studies of specific countries in the Asia-Pacific region which were commissioned by UNESCO Bangkok. 

They are grouped into 3 sections:

Country Examples of General MTEF
Analysis and evaluation of country experiences in developing general MTEF as well as its links with broader development frameworks such as PRSP and wider context such as public expenditure management reform are presented here.

Country Example of Education MTEF
This concerns in-depth case studies on the practice and experience relating to the introduction and preparation of MTEF for the education sector, mainly from the Asia-Pacific region. Most of these case studies have been commissioned by UNESCO Bangkok.   

MTEF Documents

The documents collected and presented in this section are real examples of MTEF documents.  They are examples of technical MTEF documents produced by the governments implementing MTEF.

It is to be noted that although it is useful to look at experience and examples of methods and budgets from other countries, setting up an MTEF is a national exercise and must be developed and adapted to local needs and structures.