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Clearinghouse Updates, Asia - Pacific Focus, March 2010 Issue

HIV and AIDS Education Clearinghouse Updates
Asia-Pacific Focus
March 2010

1. Latest Publications
2. Forthcoming Events


Latest Publications


20 Years of HIV in Bangladesh: Experiences and Way Forward
World Bank and UNAIDS, 2009
The report describes the scope and the coverage of interventions delivered, and the institutions involved in the response to HIV and AIDS in Bangladesh as well as analyses the trend of the epidemic and impact of the prevention programs.
This work concludes that despite Bangladesh's vulnerability to HIV, one of the reasons for low prevalence in Bangladesh is the early and sustained implementation of HIV programs targeted to the most at risk populations – informed by data from regular surveillance and behavioral surveys. A state-of-the-art surveillance system has been in place since 1998. Eight serological and five behavioral surveillance surveys have provided critical guidance to better target the populations at risk and make the interventions more effective.

Assessment of Utilization of the HIV Interventions by Sex Workers in Selected Brothels in Bangladesh
Huq N and Chowdhury M
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 2009
This study aims to know about changes in knowledge, attitude and behavioural practices of the female sex workers (FSWs) for STI and HIV and AIDS prevention and to understand the socio-cultural context for these changes in the selected brothels. It shows that the peer educators were found to be acceptable and credible facilitators to the FSWs in brothels. It shows that FSWs’ high knowledge of STIs/HIV/AIDS was not always supported by the skills to negotiate with the clients. Therefore, more life skills- training and role-playing exercises will be parts of the training program for the FSWs. Involvement of Babus and other stakeholders, such as the owner of the brothel, local police department, service providers at the referral centres into the program and training of the care providers on human rights and interpersonal communication skills will also help to make HIV interventions for FSWs a success.


The HIV Epidemic in Yunnan Province, China, 1989-2007
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 53; 34-40, Supplement Article), February 2010
The article aims to investigate the characteristics and trends in the HIV epidemic in Yunnan province, China, between 1989 and 2007. It shows that the HIV epidemic in Yunnan has progressed to a concentrated epidemic. Future efforts must focus not only on groups at risk for primary infection (injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, and female sex workers) but also on their low-risk sexual partners.,_China,.7.asp

Built It and It Will Come: Lessons from Northern Economic Corridor: Migrating HIV and Other Diseases
Asian Development Bank, 2009

This report examines the impact on the local people of an important infrastructure projectin northwest Lao — the upgrade of Route 3, which forms part of the northern economic corridor linking Thailand with China.The report also outlines the implications for future HIV mitigation programs, and recommends ways to ensure that future programs maximize the good that infrastructure development brings and minimize negative impacts.

Community Reaction to Older-age Parental AIDS Caregivers and their Families: Evidence from Cambodia

Knodel J, Williams N, Kim S, Puch S, Saengtienchai C
Research on Aging
, 32(1), 122-151, January 2010
This article examines community reaction in Cambodia to families from the perspective of parents of adults who died of AIDS or currently receive antiretroviral therapy. Survey evidence and open-ended interviews reveal a mixture of reactions related to social relations, interactions with local officials, gossip, business patronage, funeral participation, and orphaned grandchildren. Positive support is often dominant and reactions typically improve substantially over time. Misplaced fears of contagion through casual contact underlie most negative reactions. Moral condemnation or blame is not evident as a source of negative reactions. Overall a sufficiently supportive atmosphere likely exists in many localities to facilitate community-based efforts to mitigate the epidemic’s impact on affected families.
For a copy of this article, please directly contact John Knodel at

HIV/AIDS interventions in Bangladesh: What can application of a social exclusion framework tell us?
Nidhi Khosla
J Health Popul Nutr, 27(4), 587-597, August 2009
Bangladesh has maintained a low HIV prevalence (of less than 1%) despite multiple risk factors. However, recent serological surveillance data have reported very high levels of HIV infection among a subgroup of male injecting drug-users (IDUs). This suggests that an HIV/AIDS epidemic could be imminent in Bangladesh. Although biomedical and behavioural change projects are important, they do not address the root causes of observed risky behaviours among ‘high-risk’ groups. In Bangladesh, these groups include sex workers, IDUs, males who have sex with males, and the transgender population—hijra—who are all excluded groups. Using a social exclusion framework, this paper analyzed existing literature on HIV in Bangladesh to identify social, economic and legal forces that heighten the vulnerability of such excluded groups to HIV/AIDS. It found that poverty and bias against women are major exclusionary factors. The paper presents areas for research and for policy action so that the social exclusion of high-risk groups can be reduced, their rights protected, and an HIV epidemic averted.

International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education
UNESCO, December 2009
The voluntary and non-mandatory International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education developed by UNESCO in partnership with UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO seeks to assist education, health and other relevant authorities to develop and implement school-based sexuality education materials and programmes. It is based on a rigorous review of evidence on sexuality education programmes and is aimed at education and health sector decision-makers and professionals.
Volume I of the International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education focuses on the rationale for sexuality education and provides sound technical advice on characteristics of effective programmes. It is the outcome of a rigorous review of the literature on the impact of sexuality education and sexual behaviour, drawing upon 87 studies from around the world.  
A companion document (Volume II) focuses on the topics and learning objectives to be covered in a basic minimum package on sexuality education for children and young people from 5 to 18+ years of age and includes a bibliography of useful resources.


Male Homosexual Identities, Relationships, and Practices among Young Men Who have Sex with Men in Vietnam: Implications for HIV Prevention
Anh Ngo D, Ross M, Phan H, Ratliff E, Trinh T, and Sherburne L,AIDS Education and Prevention, 21(3), 251-265, 2009
This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15–24 in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city of Vietnam. The analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. The report documents the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam. It also highlights the stages of homosexual community development in urban Vietnam and important differences between Vietnam and the West in the representation of homosexual identity, relationships, and practices. It is suggested that the continuing development and elaboration of a homosexual community in these two cities offers significant opportunities for targeted HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the Vietnamese MSM population.


Older-age Parents and the AIDS Epidemic in Thailand: Changing Impacts in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy
Knodel J, Kespichayawattana J, Saengtienchai C, Wiwatwanich S
This publication presents the findings of the study on “Older-age parents and the AIDS epidemic in Thailand: Changing impacts in the era of Antiretroviral Therapy” to assist policymakers addressing similar contextual environments to further understand the epidemic, its impact on elderly caregivers and their contributions, especially by their assisting with treatment adherence. The report represents one of the few research studies that focuses on the impact of HIV and AIDS on the lives of persons living with HIV/AIDS and their families in the region and on the potential of family members for assisting with treatment programs. It serves to fill the gap in the dearth of research on the role of older aged parents in the AIDS epidemic, in particular in the context of the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy.

Opportunities and Challenges in School-based Sex and Sexual Health Education in Nepal
Acharya D, Van Teijlingen E, Simkhada P
Kathmandu University Medical Journal, 7(4):445-453, 2009
This article identifies and addresses opportunities for and challenges to current school-based sex and sexual health education in Nepal. Key literature searches were conducted of electronic databases and relevant websites, furthermore personal contact with experts and the hand searching of key journals was included. The review of this literature generated the following challenges: Limitations to teaching including lack of life skill-based and human right-based approach, inappropriate teaching aid and reliance on conventional methods, existing policy and practice, parental/community support, and lack of research into and evaluation of sex education. Diverse methodology in teaching, implementation of peer education programme, partnership with parents, involvement of external agencies and health professionals, capacity building of teachers, access to support and service organisation, and research and evaluation in sex education have been suggested for improving the current practice of sex and sexual health education in Nepalese schools.


UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team on Education Resources (CD-ROM)
UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education, December 2009

The CD-ROM contains 50 recent resources produced by the UNAIDS IATT on Education. Included on the CD-ROM are advocacy briefs, toolkits, and other technical materials in a range of languages. These resources are one part of the IATT on Education’s efforts to advance the evidence base, and to promote and share good practices on education sector response to HIV and AIDS.
Contact: UNAIDS IATT on Education at


The State of Social and Political Science Research Related to HIV: a Report for the International AIDS Society
International AIDS Society, 2009
This report contains a review of the state of social and political science research on HIV and AIDS. Its aim was to assess the state of the field so that the International AIDS Society can better encourage and support social and political science research through its activities, particularly its international conferences. The review analyzes the most commonly published types of social and political science research on HIV and invited international experts to consider challenges and opportunities within the field.

2.  Forthcoming Events
(For the complete list of additions, please visit our Database of Events at


The 3rd Congress of the Asia Pacific Initiative on Reproduction (ASPIRE 2010)
9 - 11 April 2010
Bangkok, Thailand
Organizer: Asia Pacific Initiative on Reproduction (ASPIRE)
Contact: The Congress Secretariat at or tel.:+65 6292 4706

HIV TB Training e-Learning Program
22 - 23 April 2010
Bangkok, Thailand
Organizers: Health[e]Foundation, Thai Red Cross Research Center        
Contact: Annemijn Blok-Versteeg at or tel.: 66 846601112

16th International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infection (IUSTI) Asia-Pacific Congress
4 – 6 May 2010
Bali, Indonesia
Organizers: International Union Against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) andAsia Pacific and Indonesian
Society of Dermatology and Venereology

Contact: Farida Sukandar Sutan Assin at or tel.: 62-21-316 0104


10th APA Conference: VOICE OUT! Advancing Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights and the MDGs: Looking to 2015 and Beyond
17 - 18 May 2010
Bangkok, Thailand
Organizer: Asia Pacific Alliance (APA)
Contact: APA at

Health, HIV and AIDS: Stepping Up & Sustaining Media Response
24 May 2010
Beijing Hotel, Beijing, China
Organizer: Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development (AIBD)
Contact:   Javad Mottaghi at or tel.: +(86-10) 65137766

AIDS 2010

18 -23 July 2010
Vienna, Austria
Organizer: IAS in partnership with a number of international bodies and local partners

4th Asian Conference on Sexuality Education
12 -14 August 2010
Hongkong, China
Organizer: Family Planning Association of Hong Kong
Contact: Conference Secretariat at or tel.: +852 2735 8118

4th National Conference on HIV/AIDS prevention
25 - 26 November 2010
Hanoi, Vietnam
Organizer: Vietnam Administration of HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC), Ministry of Health

Contact: VAAC at or tel.: 84 437366185




This Newsletter was prepared by the HIV Coordination, Adolescent Reproductive and School Health Unit, UNESCO Bangkok (
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