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HIV and injecting drug users (IDUs)

Report on people who inject drugs in the South-East Asia region

Good practice in Asia: targeted HIV prevention for IDU and sex workers.
Viet nam's first large-scale national harm reduction initiative
WHO, WPRO, 2010
This monograph brings together important learning of what worked and why from this early experience in targeted HIV prevention in Vietnam. These descriptions of practical examples are aimed at the rising numbers of providers of HIV prevention services, and its launch comes at the right time when Government is poised to rapidly scale up targeted HIV prevention activities and replicate good practice.

Technical guide for countries to set targets for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment and care for injecting drug users (pdf)
This document provides technical guidance to countries on setting ambitious, but achievable national targets for scaling up towards universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care for injecting drug users (IDUs).

Policy guidelines for collaborative TB and HIV services for injecting and other drug users
WHO, 2008
Evidence for action technical paper and policy brief.

HIV/AIDS care and treatment for people who inject drugs in Asia and the Pacific: an essential practice guide
The guide is designed for primary care physicians who provide care and treatment to individuals infected with HIV through IDU. It may also be useful for other health-care providers such as nurses, pharmacists, addiction specialists and professionals in other health-related fields. Although some patients would have used injection drugs in the past and are not current users, many who require HIV treatment will continue to inject drugs. This guide is designed to provide a practical and detailed approach to ART and addiction treatment, although supplementary documents will be useful.

Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access
UNAIDS, 2007
These Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access are designed to provide policy makers and planners with practical guidance to tailor their national HIV prevention response so that they respond to the epidemic dynamics and social context of the country and populations who remain most vulnerable to and at risk of HIV infection. They have been developed in consultation with the UNAIDS cosponsors, international collaborating partners, government, civil society leaders and other experts. They build on Intensifying HIV Prevention: UNAIDS Policy Position Paper and the UNAIDS Action Plan on Intensifying HIV Prevention.

Policy and Programming Guide for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care among Injecting Drug Users
WHO, 2005
The guide concentrates on distilling the principles from policies and programmes that have worked well in responding to HIV/AIDS epidemics among IDUs. These principles can be transferred to other societies, but there is no definitive answer as to what will work. The issues involved in developing and sustaining effective responses to HIV/AIDS and injecting drug use are complex, and every society and community is different. How these principles are expressed in a specific society depends on the characteristics of that society. The guide is just that – a guide. It aims to help people in applying principles that have proved effective in dealing with HIV/AIDS and injecting drug use, but it will not be effective unless local circumstances are taken into account.

Drug use and HIV/AIDS in Thailand
Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, 2009

Deadly Denial: Barriers to HIV/AIDS treatment for people who use drugs in Thailand 
Human Rights Watch, Thai AIDS Treatment Action Group, 2007

Baseline assessment of the current status of resources, policies and services for injecting drug use and HIV/AIDS in South and Southeast Asia (pdf)
United Nations Regional Task Force, 2007

Malaysian Illicit Drug Policy: Top- Down Multi-Agency Governance or Bottom- Up Multi- Level Governance (pdf)

Myanmar Coutry Advocacy brief Injection Drug Use and HIV

Implementation of Drug Control Policy through the Subversive Measures and the Compulsory
Treatment Strategies :A Few Years After
Decha Sungkawan

Tackling HIV/AIDS Among Injecting Drug Users: Lessons Learned from Thailand (pdf)
Laila Khondkar

Schemes for prevention of HIV/AIDS amongst alcohol and drug dependents – role of National Aids Control Organisation (pdf)
National Aids Control Organization

Research Articles

HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for people who inject drugs: a systematic review of global, regional, and national coverage.

Mathers BM, Degenhardt L, Ali H, Wiessing L, Hickman M, Mattick RP, Myers B, Ambekar A, Strathdee SA; 2009 Reference Group to the UN on HIV and Injecting Drug Use.
Lancet. 2010 Mar 20;375(9719):1014-28.
Previous reviews have examined the existence of HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for injecting drug users (IDUs) worldwide, but they did not quantify the scale of coverage. The research-team undertook a systematic review to estimate national, regional, and global coverage of HIV services in IDUs.
Abstract and article:

How much will it cost? Estimation of resource needs and anailability for HIV prevention, treatment and care for people who inject drugs in Asia.
Bergenstrom A, McLeod R, Sharma M, Mesquita F, Dorabjee J, Atun R, Lewis G, Rao JV
Int J Drug Policy. 2010 Mar;21(2):107-9.
As countries in Asia strive to meet their universal access targets, harm-reduction programmes are yet to be scaled up to reach effective levels of coverage. Resource tracking and estimation of resource needs and gaps is critical to inform the financing decisions of major donors of harm-reduction programmes in the region. This study aimed at estimating the financial resource needs and gaps for scaling-up harm reduction in the region, building on previous research conducted by the Independent Commission on AIDS in Asia. The overall resource need for achieving universal access in the target population in 2009 was US $0.5 billion, with NSP and OST accounting for nearly 70% of the overall regional resource need. A significant resource gap, approximately 90%, of the resource need in 2009, was identified for harm reduction in the region, representing less than 2% of the overall global resource need to address AIDS. Additional resources will be required to support the introduction and scaling-up of integrated, comprehensive harm-reduction programmes that provide a full range of services to reduce HIV transmission among people who inject drugs.

Report on people who inject drugs in the South-East Asia region. WHO, 2010