Follow Us:

Some studies on the use and impact of ICT in education

Several studies have been conducted on ICT and its use and impact on education, some of which are included below.

A. Survey of Information and Communications Technology in Schools 2001 (England)

This survey on ICT provisions in schools in England, carried out in April 2001, was compared to similar surveys conducted in 1998, 1999 and 2000. The surveys collected information on the number and type of computers available in schools, expenditure, the extent and benefit of the use of ICT across curriculum subjects, the use of internet and other electronic network communication links, teacher usage and their confidence in the use of ICT in the curriculum. Some of the findings are following:

a. computers in schoo

  • average number of computers per school increased steadily in all types of schools between 1998 and 2001 - the increase was noted to be great between 2000 and 2001

b. Internet usage and other external electronic communication services

  • between 1998 and 2001, there was a considerable increase in the percentage of schools connected to the Internet

c. use of ICT in teaching and teacher confidence

  • in each type of school there was an increase in the percentage of teachers reported to feel confident in the use of ICT in 2001

d. expenditure on ICT

  • the average expenditure on computers per school increased steadily in all school types between 1998 and 2001

Source: Statistics of Education: Survey of Information and Communications Technology in Schools 2001

National Statistics Bulletin
Department for Education and Skills
Issue No. 09/01
October 2001

B. The Networked Readiness Index: Measuring the Preparedness of Nations for the Networked World

The Center for International Development (CID) at Harvard University created the Network Readiness Index (NRI), a major international assessment of countries’ capacity to exploit the opportunities offered by ICTs. In the development of the NRI, data sources fall under two general categories: a variety of measures, mainly “hard” variables and also “soft” ones from sources such as the World Bank, the International Telecommunications Union, Freedom House, and the Business Software Alliance were used and data collected from the questionnaire responses of more than 4,500 business and government leaders surveyed in 75 countries by the Global Competitiveness Report’s 2001 Global Executive Opinion Survey.

The Network Readiness Index is an assessment of a country’s ICT capacity, showing how nations are performing with regards to their participation in the Networked World. Out of 75 countries, the United States of America tops the NRI ranking, as the most highly developed ICT network with the greatest potential to exploit network’s capacity. Iceland, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Netherlands clearly follow. Another Northern European country, Denmark, ranks 7th, followed by Singapore in 8th, Austria in 9th and the United Kingdom in the 10th place. Among the countries in the region which were included are Korea, rank number 20 followed by Japan in the 21st place, Malaysia in number 26, Thailand, number 43, India, number 54, Philippines, number 58 followed by Indonesia in number 59, Sri Lanka in number 62, China in 64, Bangladesh in 73 and Vietnam in 74.

Two components were taken into consideration in the computation of the NRI: network use and enabling factors. Network use is the measure of increase in the use of ICT, narrowed down to five more categories: Internet users per hundred inhabitants, cellular subscribers per hundred inhabitants, Internet users per host, percentage of computers connected to the Internet and availability of public access to the Internet.

Enabling factors are made up of four sub-indices: network access, network policy, networked society and networked economy. Network access also relates to the information infrastructure, hardware, software and support, measuring the extent and quality of the network infrastructure and the existence of equipment, programmes, and support services that enable ICT use. Network policy refers to the information and communications policy and economic climate. It also deals with the levels of competition in the telecommunications and ICT sectors. Networked society measures the quality and extent of use of ICT facilities in education, while networked economy assesses the extent of public and private sectors participation and e-government.


C. Profile on Information and Communications Technology Capabilities of Elementary and Secondary Schools in the Philippines, 2000-2001
Project TAO CARES (Computer-Assisted Reforms for Schools)

This is a national population survey of public and private elementary and secondary schools conducted by SEAMEO INNOTECH in the Philippines under Project TAO CARES in March 2001. The main objective was to determine ICT capabilities of schools. A total of 45,811 schools were given questionnaires, with the school heads as respondent, of which 79.37 percent responded. The questionnaire consisted of 42 items, mostly focused on the readiness of schools in terms of infrastructure, hardware, software and manpower capabilities on ICT. Outputs were sixteen regional profiles on the ICT- preparedness of schools, including data on the availability of electricity, access of schools to communication facilities, presence of computers, other multi-media equipment in schools, funding, proficiency of school staff in ICTs, training on ICT, computer courses and other ICT-related information.

Some of the major findings of the survey at the national level are the following:

  • Only 66.07 % of schools have electrical connections
  • Only 13.30 % have landline telephone, 2.90 % have fax machines, and 2.00 % have Internet connections
  • 5,217 schools only or 14.28 % have computers with the National Capital Region having the highest percentage at 87.30 %
  • Only 18.24 % of schools have staff proficient in the use of computers
  • 78.62 % of schools get funding to maintain ICT related operations from the PTCA
  • Only very few schools (13.13 %) have school heads with ICT training in the past 5 years
  • 64.36% of school heads need training on basic computer literacy

D. The 1996 National Survey on Computer Education - Philippines

This study was conducted by the New Educational Technologies Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organisation composed of schools that believe in the capacity of IT in improving the quality of student learning and efficiency of teaching. A total of 794 schools participated in the survey with school heads in the pubic and private schools as respondents. The questionnaire was divided into two parts. The first asked about perceptions, level of awareness and attitudes regarding the value of computer education and was answered by users and non-users of computers, while the second dealt with actual computer use, answered by users only. Among the findings are the following:

  • The number of computers owned by a private schools is twice as much as what a public school can afford
  • Computers available in schools are mostly the models AT486
  • Most computer units in the public elementary schools were acquired through donations, in the secondary and tertiary schools, most computers were acquired through purchase
  • Computers are mostly used to teach different application programs

Source: The 1996 National Survey on Computer Education, New Educational Technologies Foundation Inc.

E. Use Multiple Assessment to Capture IT All

In a primary school in Sunnyside Elementary School, Pullman, Washington, students are using e-mails, Web sites, videos and videoconferencing technology tools to develop their learning skills. Through these mediums, the students alongside with their global peers identify and share their cultures with one another in new ways. Traditionally, students learn about the world through books but new technology allow the students to get in depth information about different cultures through writing, reading and communicating with their global peers. The following are the assessment tools used: Assessment rubrics designed for specific projects, lessons, and/or classroom experiences; Standard assessment tools (i.e., DRA and Wright Group Reading Assessments); Teacher anecdotal notes; Children’s voices in the process of learning; Parents’ reports of student learning progress.

Teaching in non-traditional ways can sometimes be risky business – with all eyes upon the class to see if learning is taking place. It has been shown that students learn to read, write, and communicate using technology at rates that meet and exceed standards for primary classes. But along the way, the added value of technology contributes in areas such as thinking skills, social skills, engagement in learning, motivation, teaching, and collaborating as the class sees the essential learning in the context of the real world.


F. Technology: A Major Catalyst for Increasing Learning - by Jody C. Isernhagen, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Technology Horizons in Education Journal Online - August 1999

A rural public school in Nebraska of 1,400 students applied for a three-year competitive Excellence in Education Grant in late 1995. Six school administrators and 18 staff members designed a plan to restructure their school and classrooms, defining major skills needed by students as comprehension, reasoning, composition and experimentation. Computers were placed in each of 80 classrooms and 27 in the elementary Integrated Learning Lab with Computer Curriculum Corporation Success Maker Software. The software, Success Maker, automatically diagnoses and places students on the appropriate skill level while using the computer. The computer lab was used by 314 students and 13 teachers in grades 1 – 3 from January 1996 to May 1998. Teachers were trained on ClarisWorks, Microsoft Word, E-mail, Internet, Presentation Stations and the integration of ICTs. Activities of the students involved computer building; designing of Web pages to help maintain the school’s Web pages; digitising video to present to the community; creating panoramic views where they make interactive virtual reality scenes; preparing letters of application, resumes and cover letters and to search the Web for jobs. As with all the activities carried out, the teacher served as guides.

The CAT scores in reading and maths for students using an Integrated Learning Lab for 2.5 years showed a significant difference between the means. The scores of students testing below the 50th percentile at grades 1 – 3 in reading and maths increased significantly over time. These findings suggest that using an Integrated Learning Lab with rural primary age children daily over an extended period of time may improve student learning, particularly that of those students functioning below the 50th percentile.


G. The Impact of Networked ICT on Literacy Learning in English, 5 – 16

This report is the result of a literature review conducted, first, to identify a number of studies highlighting the impact of ICT on literacy learning for 5 to 16 year olds, and second, as an in-depth review of related papers. Out of the 1, 871 studies screened, only 188 met the criteria. These studies were then keyworded, or indexed and the results filed on an electronic database.

Of the 188 studies relevant, 16 pertained to the topic of the impact of networked ICT on literacy learning. Of these, half were outcome evaluations (evaluations of the results of an experiment or innovation), seven were process evaluations (evaluations on how an intervention was delivered, rather than whether it worked or not) and one was a needs assessment.

Results are inconclusive. As far as policy and practice go, recommendations are highly tentative and take the form of implications or pointers. With regard to policy, they are to focus research funding for large-scale studies; to give consideration to the balance of study type expertise in research teams; and to give consideration to the fact that the provision of computer hardware and software to schools, and the application of ICT in teaching and learning, need to be informed by research and evaluation.


H. Education Research Fund - Effective Integration of IT in Singapore Schools: Pedagogical and Policy Implications
Phase One Report - National Institute of Education - Singapore

This is a report on the key findings of a questionnaire survey to identify the degree of IT integration in Singapore schools. It is the first phase of a larger study funded by the Ministry of Education to examine and analyse where and how IT is integrated to develop pupils’ higher order thinking skills. A total of 328 schools responded, of which 168 are primary schools, 144 secondary schools and 16 junior colleges/centralised institutes (JC/Cs).

Major findings of the questionnaire survey inclu

  • Phase I schools in the IT Masterplan have significantly higher pupil and teacher use of IT, greater opportunities for staff development of teachers, and more conducive IT culture than Phase III schools
  • Independent-autonomous schools have significantly better management of IT resources, higher teacher and pupils use of IT, greater opportunities for staff development for teachers and more conducive IT culture than government schools
  • There are no significant differences among the primary schools, secondary schools and JC/Cs in terms of the management of IT resources, pupil and teacher use of IT, staff development and school IT culture
  • The correlations among management of IT resources, pupil use of IT, teacher use of IT, staff development and IT culture are significant and highly positive