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Promoting teachers competencies on integration of ICT in teaching and learning


ICT integration in education is a thematic priority for the Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance (VVOB). VVOB is using a range of support strategies for ICT integration in education in different countries around the world. A crucial factor in these strategies is capacity development on ICT integration among teachers, teacher educators, educational managers and policy makers. This capacity development includes the provision of strategic and technical advice, the facilitation of training, knowledge building and sharing, and the facilitation of effective partnerships amongst various stakeholders.

In South-East Asia, VVOB has education programmes with an ICT component in Cambodia and Vietnam.  In these programmes, Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) are the main partners. VVOB believes that dedicated educators will always be essential for any successful ICT4E initiative, since they are the key to the appropriate and effective use of technology.  In both countries the work aims at the use of ICT to enhance classroom teaching and student learning by teachers’ (and/or teacher educators).  Different ICTs are introduced (referring to Technology Knowledge). Educators are encouraged to reflect on pedagogical aspects (referring to Technological-Pedagogical Knowledge) and to apply and try out certain approaches in subject teaching (Technological-Pedagogical-Content Knowledge) (see also:  As argued by Ng, Miao & Lee (2010), too often the approach to ICT integration in teacher training is the one-off crash course on computer literacy.  VVOB goes beyond this by engaging educators in exciting learning trajectories on integration of ICT in their day-to-day teaching practice.  A guiding principle is to start from the existing curriculum and only to introduce relevant tools and materials that can enhance or even innovate teaching and learning.  The TEIs and especially schools in both countries are still coping with limited ICT resources.  However, optimal use of existing resources could result in creative solutions.  

In Cambodia

In 2009 the Ministry of Education developed an ICT master plan in collaboration with UNESCO.  One of the components of the plan is the introduction of interactive multimedia for teacher training. 

VVOB Cambodia helps to implement this part of the ICT master plan, and focuses on the development of ready-made multimedia learning materials, specifically for science teacher trainers.  These materials mainly include animations, simulations and video clips, and are produced in collaboration with teacher trainers and ministry officials to ensure ownership and quality control. 

The materials match the curricula and are contextualized.  The set of technical competencies to operate these multimedia applications is minimal, which helps to lower the barrier for use.  Support materials have been developed to guide the teacher trainers in how to create most added learning value by use of these interactive applications.  This added value is achieved through application of student centred approaches, whereby students are encouraged to reflect upon abstract and complex concepts.  Student teachers acquire a superior conceptual understanding of their subject topics and construct knowledge in an interactive way. 

Over 200 interactive multimedia applications have been prepared, and a team of trainers consisting of 20 teacher trainers and educational officials are being trained in the use of these applications.  They share and transfer their skills to their peers during nation-wide workshops and the follow-up of these workshops, reaching a total of more than 100 teacher trainers.  This allows them to improve their teaching and to close the digital divide, learning how to use ICT in an effective manner.

This website freely shares the learning materials developed by VVOB in cooperation with its partners.  Although the site is bilingual (Khmer/English), most of the materials available are in Khmer as they are intended for use in the Cambodian teaching curriculum. 

The emphasis is on providing interactive multimedia and video clips in order to integrate ICT in teacher training practice. 


In Vietnam

VVOB Vietnam focuses on training teachers and teacher educators on the use of ICT to activate students in the learning process.  A training package on “ICT for Active Teaching and Learning (ATL)” was developed with a core group of teacher educators of five TEIs.  More than 500 teacher educators have been trained.  They developed lesson plans integrating ICT, and invited peers to observe and evaluate their teaching practice.  At the end of the 3-year programme the use of ICT in teaching practice significantly improved in these TEIs (see impact study:  As a result also pre-service students are more exposed to effective use of ICT.  Following up on the Next Gen Curriculum development workshop from UNESCO Bangkok, VVOB Vietnam is involved in the development of an ICT curriculum for pre-service teachers - in collaboration with Hanoi National University of Education ( and the Vietnamese National Institute for Education Sciences (

In 2011 the “ICT for ATL” package was used for training of almost 3000 in-service teachers in lower-secondary schools.  Training was supplied by the provincial Departments of Education and Training following the VVOB approach on “ICT for ATL”.  Each module of the training package, introduces a technology-enhanced instructional design together with technical instructions and manuals for the tools.  It complements this with examples and case studies on the use of these tools in classroom teaching in Vietnam.  These illustrations consist of videos, lesson plans and teacher materials as well as links to relevant resources and research papers on instructional designs in a Vietnamese context (  Pending assessment by the Ministry of Education and Training, the training package will be included in a reference list for national training materials for in-service teachers.

The interactive training package on “ICT for ATL”, developed by VVOB and its partners, can be consulted online in Vietnamese as well as in English.  The ambition of this platform is to collect and share examples of integration of ICT in classroom teaching, not only from Vietnam, but from educators from all over the world. 


Further information

VVOB is the Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance. “Education for Development” is VVOB’s motto and its overall objective is to contribute to sustainable poverty reduction and to a more equal world with increased opportunities for all.  The organisation’s main objective is to sustainably improve the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of education and training in developing countries. VVOB is currently active and has well established partnerships with Ministries of Education in ten countries in Africa, Asia and South America. ( (



Ng, W-K, N., Miao, F., & Lee, M. (2010). Capacity-building for ICT integration in education. Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010.