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Policy and legislation

 To have a clear understanding of the meaning of Inclusive Education in the national context, it is necessary to have a clear definition in all policy statements along with references to international normative instruments.  In addition, inclusive education should be implemented following the guidelines of the Education for All (EFA) framework.  IE requires policy action at both the national and local level.  At the national level, the government must implement the passage of new laws mandating inclusive education, while at the local level schools and the community must participate in capacity building, resource mobilization, and generating knowledge.


The national policy on inclusive education should be grounded in international legislation and policy.  The right to an education free of discrimination is stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN, 1948) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN, 1989).  Moreover, Rule 6 of the UN’s Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (UN, 1993) provides for equal rights for children and adults with disabilities and for the provision of an integrated school setting.  


In the Asia-Pacific region, although many countries have agreed to implement inclusive education in accordance with the EFA framework, government legislation and policies vary widely.  In addition, there is a lack of effective oversight to ensure implementation.  Hence, it is necessary to strengthen policies and legislation for inclusive education both de jure and de facto, improve coordination between the government and schools for implementation, and increase effective monitoring and evaluation.