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Implementing agency

Indian Institute of Education (IIE)
J.P. Naik Path, 128/2 Kotharud
Pune 411029, India
Tel: 91-205433336     Fax: 91-205435239

Literacy situation

In view of the enoumous challenges in literacy, the National Literacy Misions (NLM) was launched in (year) in the mission mode for achieving literacy for all as the process of nation building.  The success of the Ernakulam model in Kerala, which based itself on a spirit of voluntarism and complete mobilization of civil society, became the organizing priciple of the Total Literacy Campaigns (TLC). 


Post-literacy phase has been initiated in nearly 50% of the disctricts of the country in follow up of the TLC.  Furthermore, Continuing Education Centres are established in a number of districts to provide veunes for lifelong learning. 


In spite of the above efforts over the last two decades, it is estimated that India has about 200 million adlt illiterates, which consists of one third of the world’s illiterate population according to the EFA 2000 Assessement Report.


CLC initiatives

A pilot project on CLCs was initiated by the Indian Institute of Education Pune, through its Centre for Education and Development of Rural Women (CEDRW), Shivapur in 1999.  Seven CLCs have been in operation in two Blocks of Pune District which is a rural agro-based area, while the CLC at Shivapur is functioning as a Nodal Centre to provide technical support to the CLCs. 


Another pilot project was launched in West Bengal by Ramakrishna Mission in 2001.



Since India is a big country with diversed populations and cultures, activities of each CLCs are different according to the needs and resources in the commnity.  In general, most CLCs focus on the development of the community through education, socio-economic and cultural activities.  Main activities include: legal literacy, communication skills, income generation through agriculture, micro credit, reproductive health, sanitation, early childhood care, sports and folk culture. 


Various information has been disseminated through meetings and libraries covering such topics as decentralized governance, income generation and effective communitation in the community.  Empowerment of women has been placed as the ‘main road’ to sustainable devleopment of families, local communitys and society as a whole in many CLCs. 


Strengths and weaknesses

CLC activities are planned and carried out by the CLC management committee in consultation with resource persons of the NGO through regular meetings.  This participatory process can help identify specific needs of respective age groups of the community, so that CLCs can provide variety of activities to different age groups.  Many CLCs organize Self-help Groups according to the areas of interests as well as age groups such as children, adolescent women and senior citizen.


On the other hand, the particpation of communtiy people is often limited since most people are busy with their day-to-day work in the farm.  Shortage of local resoruce persons is another constraint towards making the CLCs fully community owned organizations.  Although women empowerment is one of the priories of many CLCs, in reality, participatin of girls and women  is not always easy mainly because of socio religious pressure, e.g. cast system as well as low self-esteem of women theselves.


Future Plans

Implementation of CLCs will be strengthened through the training of personnel, undertaking researches and conducting various skill training programmes including comupter based activities.


Based on the successful experineces in individual CLCs, linkages and networking with other development programmes will be developed in view of the National and state Education for All policy and strategies.  In particular, coordination between Continuing Education Centres and CLCs need to be promoted at the local as well as state and national levels.