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Viet Nam

Implementing agencies

Research Centre for Literacy and Continuing Education (RCLCE); and
Continuing Education Department
Ministry of Education and Training

Contact details
Continuing Education Department
Ministry of Education and Training
49 Dai Co Viet Road,  Hanoi
Tel:  84-4 8694986, 869364; Fax:  84-4 8694085
Contact person : Mr. Tran Quoc Chan, Head of Literacy, Post-literacy and CLC Section


Literacy situation

As of 2000, Vietnam has achieved 94% literacy rate in the age group of 15 to 35.  All the 61 provices has been recognized as achieving the National standard of universal primary education and literacy.  Non-formal education programmes have been provided through Continuing Education Centres at the provincial and district levels.  At the national level, Continuing Education Department (CED) of Ministry of Education and Training has coordinated NFE activities.  In view of the high achievement in literacy, the key issue for access has been the improvement of the programme delivery in disadvantaged areas and population groups including ethnic minorities.


CLC initiatives and features

To further strengthen the delivery mechanisms of NFE at the community level, the CLC project started in 1998 with six pilot centres in northern Vietnam under the support from APPEAL.  The pilot project was carried out by Research Centre for Literacy and Continuing Education (RCLCE) focusing on the need based programme formulation, participatory management and multi-functions linking literacy to practical skills.  The project has been possible through the full support from the local People’s Committee, which is necessary in Vietnam. 


Based on the success of the pilot project, the government has included CLCs as the main strategy of providing literacy and continuing education programmes under the National EFA Action Plans.   As of 2002, there are 680 CLCs established in the country, which will be expanded to 2,532 centres by 2003.  Furthermore, the CLC concepts and methods have been adopted by other organizations, such as UNICEF, and the National Federation of UNESCO Associations in Japan, (NFUAJ), which has supported the establishment of 40 CLCs in Lai Chau Province since 2000. 



Based on the needs assessment results in each community, a variety of activities have been carried out in CLCs e.g. equivalency classes for adults and out-of-school youth; agriculture skill training on crops and animal raising; cultural activities including traditional music and dance based on local indigenous cultures; sports activities for younger community members; upgrading a reading corner to a library; and, community meetings.  Coordination with other organizations have also been promoted e.g. various local associations such as farmers, elderly, veterans, women and youths as well as other donors e.g. UNICEF for small-scale credit schemes. 


Impact and challenges

Research by the RCLCE showed that the CLCs have had positive impacts on people’s quality of life, e.g. the confidence, boldness and the pro-activeness of the people have been gradually enhanced.  Full participation of the local communities in needs assessment, project implementation and monitoring and evaluation has contributed to the empowerment of the community people. 


While capacity of community personnel is still weak and need further training, the research found that awareness promotion is needed among bureaucrats and leaders at various levels to ensure their full support and  cooperation since CLC mechanisms are new to them as well.


Future plans 

Within the overall strategies of the National NFE Action Plans, the government plans to:

  • Make the CLCs a nationwide phenomenon, prepare a plan for expanding CLCs nationally and strengthen management and operation of six existing CLCs.
  • 2001-2002: Encourage each district to establish at least one CLC as a model for expanding CLCs in other communities in the district  (About 500 CLCs in the whole country).
  • 2003-2005: It is expected that 30 per cent of total communes have CLCs (about 3,000 CLCs).
  • Conduct an impact evaluation of the Project.
  • Organize a national CLC workshop to raise awareness amongst all policy and decision makers, at the central level and concerned ministries.