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  • Encouraging the development of community-based delivery mechanisms such as Community Learning Centres (CLCs) for the promotion of community participation and ownership of literacy programmes as well as linking literacy promotion with improvement of quality of life, poverty alleviation and community development
  • Promoting Equivalency Programme for more flexible literacy programmes that enable learners to move on to more formal learning opportunities
  • Promoting the creation of literate environments through various efforts including promoting mother-tongue-based bilingual and multilingual education for ethnic minorities and effective use of ICT

In the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2006, a three-pronged approach was suggested for nations to address the literacy challenge and to craft holistic literacy programmes. It strongly encourages countries to adopt explicit literacy policies to (1) expand quality primary and lower-secondary education, (2) scale up youth and adult literacy programmes, and (3) develop rich literate environments.