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Year Conducted: 2012


Some 175 languages are spoken in the Philippines. Most languages have writing systems, and there is some literature written in more than 100 of them. English and Filipino are the official languages of education and literacy for the nation. Local languages have been used as “transitional” or “auxiliary” languages for initial instruction in early primary grades for decades. The Department of Education Order 74 of 2009 established “mother tongue-based multilingual education” as the policy platform for an increased use of di­­fferent languages as the languages of instruction (LOI). According to MLE mapping exercise, twenty-six (26) Philippine languages are currently used in classrooms, some as mediums of instruction. These classes are provided in both formal and non-formal sectors as well as in private and public schools and community learning centers managed by government and civil society organizations. 

Quick Facts
Name of Organization/ Institution Level of Schooling Formal or Non-formal Public or Private Which Languages Number of Children reached by level of schooling Location Use of language in classroom (see explanations below) Materials in classroom
LAKAS – Lakas ng Alyansa ng Katutubong Ayta sa Zambales (Alliance of Indigenous Ayta in Zambales) PR NFE PRI (Community Organization) Botolan Sambal (sbl) 30 (SY 2010-2011) Botolan, Zambales 2 Sample farming tools, visual aids
Katutubong Paaralan Ha Baytan (Indigenous School in Eastern Botolan) PP NFE PRI Botolan Sambal (sbl) 42 (SY 2010-2011) Botolan, Zambales 2 Modules in Sambal, visual aids, indigenous calendar (Gatel), indigenous classroom, (Outside activities related to community life)
Katutubong Paaralan Ha Baytan PR FE PRI (Church Initiative) Botolan Sambal (sbl), Filipino (fil) 38 (SY 2010-2011) 1 Lesson plan in Sambal, visual aids , indigenous calendar, indigenous materials in classroom
Bonglo Daycare Center PP FE PRI (Church Initiative) Kankanaey (kne), Ilocano (ilo), English (eng) 28 Atok, Benguet 1 Visual aids
Sapang Dako Day Care Center PP FE PRI (University extension service) Cebuano (ceb) 40 Sapang Dako, Cebu City 2 Visual aids
Klubi Kestifun Ne Kehebol Yom Ketngon PP, PR NFE classes every summer PRI (NGO) Tboli (tbl), Hiligaynon (hil) 28 Klubi, Lake Sebu, South Cotabato 2 Books in second language
Sikat T’boli in Lake Sebu, South Cotabato PR FE PRI (Indigenous Organization) Tboli (tbl), Filipino (fil), Hiligaynon (hil) 25 Lake Sebu, South Cotabato 2 Modules, visual aids, work books
Sildap Sidlakan PR FE PRI (Indigenous Organization) Manobo, Dababawon (mbd), Cebuano (ceb), Filipino (fil), English (eng) 40-50 Tagum City, Davao 1 Modules, lesson plans, visual aids, flash cards, indigenous foods, herbs, farming tools
School for Living Tradition (Federation of Pag-indo Project) PR NFE PRI (Indigenous Organization) Mansaka (msk), Filipino (fil) 30-35 Tagum City, Davao 2 Indigenous cultural materials
Save the Children (implementer), Department of Education, Region 12 (partner) PP, PR FE in the government system PUB Hiligaynon (hil), Tboli (tbl), Maguindanao (mdh) 700 Grade 1 pupils are projected to be reached for the 1st year implementation of MLE Ten (10) elementary schools and communities in the provinces of sultan Kudarat and South Cotabato 1 & 7, L3 is also taught as a L3 (English) Variety of stage 1 reading materials - alphabet primers, big books, alphabet sharts and cards, listening stories, small books. The others still on the process of materials development
CAR - 3rd Elementary Education Programme (TEEP) - funder* PR FE PUB Lingua Franca (English, eng), Ilocano (ilo) CAR 1** 5,000 six titles
Batanes - 3rd Elementary Education Programme (TEEP) - Funder* PR FE PUB Ivatan (ivv) Batanes, Region 02 1** 500, two titles
Roxas District, Oriental Mindoro, DepEd* PR FE PUB Cebuano (ceb), Mangyan Mimaropa, Region 04.B 1** Each teacher went home with 5 full boxes of IM
Lubuagan Kalinga* PR FE PUB Lubuagan Kalinga (knb) Lubuagan, Kalinga 1** Training held in NVSU for 2 summers. Each teacher went home with 5 full boxes of IM
Natonin, Mt. Province - Government Office (Funder)* PR FE PUB Balangao (blw) Natonin, Mt. Province 1** Each teacher went home with 5-6 full boxes of IM
Ifugao DepEd - Supt Estela Carino* PP, PR FE (Govt) PUB Tuwali Ifugao (ifk), Batad Ifugao (ifb), Ilocano (ilo) Ifugao 1** The supt. Will implement DepEd 74, s 2010 in June and has named 18 schools to implement the program. They will be provided with FLC-BP books. Seven titles including teacher's manual
Nueva Vizcaya DepEd - Supt Alma Bodino - Gov. Cuaresma (Funder)* PR FE, NFE PUB Ilocano (ilo) 1** 3,000, six titles
Paracelis DepEd - Cesar Rafael (+) - funder* PR FE (Govt) PUB Ilocano (ilo) Paracelis, Mt. Province 1** 6,000 six titles
Puya-ao - Barangay Level* PR FE (Govt) PUB Balangao (blw) Alunugan, M Province 1** 50, one title
Quezon Municipality, Isabela - LGU* PR FE (Govt) PUB Ilocano (ilo) Quezon Isabela 1** 200, one title
Catholic Diocesan Schools, Bayombong, NV and Quirino* PR FE PRI Ilocano (ilo) Vizcaya and Quirino 1** Seminar - workshop
Bontoc Division - PTCA* PR FE PUB Central Bontoc (bnc) Bontoc, MT. Province 1** Seminar workshops
Region 02 (Experiment) - c/o Dr. Gloria Baguingan, NVSU (initiator), President, Marcelo Roquel - Bro. Andrew Gonzalez, DepEd, Dr. Teresita Domalanta, R-02 Director (implementer)* PR FE PUB Ilocano (ilo) Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino, Isabela, Cagayan, Batanes 1** First drafts of the FLC-BP
Ambaguio DepEd* PR FE PUB Kayapa Kallahan (kak) Nueva Vizcaya 1** 35, one title
Capatan Elmentary School* PR FE PUB Itawit (itv) Cagayan 1** FLC-BP drafts
Barlig Elementary School* PR FE PUB Finallig (bkb) CAR 1** Workshop
NCRManila* PR FE PUB Filipino (fil) NCR 1** 50,000, one title
Department of Education PP, PR FE PUB Tagalog (tgl) 1250 Valenzuela City, Metro Manila 1 Yes 85
Apu Palamguwan Cultural Education Center (Implementer) PP, PR FE, NSP PRI, The departmental order stabilizing the school leaves open the question as to whether "IP" school is an independent category (PW) Binukid (bkd) PP: F (25) & M (34) = 59, PR: F (63) & M (83) = 146 Malaybalay city, Bukidnon. Technically the city but is rural, 3 hours away 2 & 7 , L3 (Filipino) is taught as a subject and is LOI for social studies. L4 (English) is taught as a subject. 7 books, 19 stories, 24 essays
Translators Association of the Philippines (TAP) PP, PR FE PUB Western Subanon (suc), Central Subanen (syb), Binukid (bkd)/Higaonon (mba) SY 2009-2010: Preschool – 362; SY 2010-2011: Preschool – 460, Grade 1 – 457; SY 2011-2012: Preschool - 519, Grade 1 - 894 Zamboanga del Norte & Talakag, Bukidnon PP – 5, PR - 2 Pre-primer, Primer, Math book, Alphabet chart, flashcards, Big books, small books, flip charts, picture series, busy posters, wall charts, calendars, word wall


Data is from past experiences covering the period of 1995 – 2010. The modes of interactions with these organizations were seminar-workshops, training programs in the First Language Component-Bridging Program (FLC-BP) including provisions of FLC-BP grade I series books, and preschools. Today, I am still actively involved in the advocacy of the FLE-BP, as an approach to effectively implement MTBMLE.


The FLC-BP is a bridging program to better implement the Bilingual Education Policy of 1974. The First Language Component is just one part of the teaching-learning program and was never isolated from the teaching-learning experiences in the two primary medium of instruction as specified in the BEP of 1974 which are Filipino and English. Since Filipino children speak languages other than Filipino and English in their homes, this program was based on the pedagogical principle that teaching should proceed from the known (Tuwali, Ifugao / Ilocano) to the unknown (Filipino, English) and was therefore designed to build a bridge between what a child knows and what he doesn’t know. Several experiments have been undertaken in various languages and in all levels of basic education that proved, that using the child’s mother tongue as bridge to learn science, math and English which use English as the mode of instruction is effective.


Name of organisation / institution: 

Give the name of the organisation(s) (NGO, local association, etc) or institution (church, pagoda, temple, university etc.) which is initiating and supporting the action. This can include government agencies and institutions. Please specify type of involvement, e.g. initiator, lead actor, funder and implementer.

Level of schooling:

Identify whether action is at the pre-primary level (PP) or at the primary /elementary level (PR). The mapping is focusing only on these two levels of education.

Formal or Non-formal:

Identify whether action is:

1. in the formal (FE) or non-formal (NFE); and
2. in the government education system (Govt) or outside the government system by non-state providers (NSP).

Public or private:

Identify whether the action is happening in the public education (PUB) system or private (PRI). If this does not apply to your country, write n/a.

Which language:

Give the name of the local or minority language(s) which the action includes. If possible, see your country’s section on the ( and find the relevant 3-letter ISO language code for these languages.

Number of children:

Give the number of children reached by school level (pre-primary and primary/elementary). Please disaggregate by gender (i.e. M: and F:),

Location of action:

Give sub-national location of action(s) either province or district

Use of language in classroom:

Identify how language is used in the classroom by using the descriptors below. Choose the most appropriate one. You can choose more than one.

1. Language of instruction (LOI) is the learners’ mother tongue (MT or L1)  and their second language (L2) .
2. Language of instruction is the mother tongue only.
3. The second language is officially the language of instruction.
4. Language of instruction is the second language with MT as subject.
5. Mother tongue is used orally, no written materials – officially.
6. Mother tongue is used orally, no written materials – unofficially.
7. Second language (L2) is taught as second language.

Materials in classroom:

Are there teaching and learning materials in MT in classroom? Yes or no. If yes, estimate the number of titles in MT.