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Thailand

Year Conducted: 2015, 2012

Summary

More than 70 languages are spoken in Thailand. Standard Thai is the de facto official and national language of Thailand, and the medium of instruction at all levels of education. In some areas, six (6) non-dominant languages are taught as a subject in the additional local studies subject in schools.  Some NDLs are used in non – formal education, mainly adult literacy, run largely by local NGOs. MLE Mapping exercise identified ten (10) minority languages are currently used as medium of instruction in classrooms. These classrooms are provided by formal, public pre-primary and primary schools in Southern (Malay), Eastern (Northern Khmer), Western (Mon - Kanchanaburi) and Northern (Hmong Daw, Pwo Karen, Mae Hong Son Lawa, Khmu) Thailand. Thailand’s first National Language Policy provides official support for NDLs in education, also as media of instruction in bilingual and multilingual education. The policy was signed by the Prime Minister in 2010.

Quick Facts
Name of Organization/ Institution Level of Schooling Formal or Non-formal Public or Private Which Languages Number of Children reached by level of schooling Location Use of language in classroom (see explanations below) Materials in classroom
Mahidol University Ban Prajan School PP, PR FE PUB Pattani Malay (mfa) 23(K1), 24(K2), 35 (G1), 25(G2), 22(G3), 29(G4), 32(G5), 30(G6) Pattani 1 Yes
Buang Nomsai School PP, PR FE PUB Pattani Malay (mfa) 11(K1), 9(K2), 20(G1), 21(G2), 21(G3), 18(G4), 15(G5), 20(G6) Yala 1 Yes
Thairat Witthaya School PP, PR FE PUB Pattani Malay (mfa) 25(K1), 39(K2), 42(G1), 27(G2), 23(G3), 29(G4), 25(G5), 22(G6) Narathiwat 1 Yes
Tamalang Nua School PP, PR FE PUB Satun Malay (meo) 23(K1), 32(K2), 27(G1), 27(G2), 20(G3), 20(G4), 25(G5), 29(G6) Satun 1 Yes
Ban Lada School PP, PR FE PUB Patani Malay (mfa) 12(K1), 17(K2), 20(G1), 24(G2) Pattani 1 Yes
Ban Buko School PP, PR FE PUB Patani Malay (mfa) 9(K1), 15(K2), 17(G1), 20 (G2) Pattani 1 Yes
Ban Kruse School PP, PR FE PUB Patani Malay (mfa) 21(K1), 27(K2), 41(G1), 35 (G2) Pattani 1 Yes
Ban Bon School PP, PR FE PUB Patani Malay (mfa) 24(K1), 25(K2), 22(G1), 23 (G2) Pattani 1 Yes
Ban Mai Patthanawit School PP, PR FE PUB Patani Malay (mfa) 18(K1), 8(K2), 28(G1), 14 (G2) Pattani 1 Yes>
Ban Pongta School PP, PR FE PUB Patani Malay (mfa) 18(K1), 19(K2), 15(G1), 22 (G2) Yala 1 Yes
Ban Talohaloa School PP, PR FE PUB Patani Malay (mfa) 53(K1), 79(K2), 81(G1), 63 (G2) Yala 1 YES
Ban Kuwa School PP, PR FE PUB Patani Malay (mfa) 28(K1), 33(K2), 49(G1), 42 (G2) Yala 1 Yes
Ban Buketamong School PP, PR FE PUB Patani Malay (mfa) 53(K1), 43(K2), 42(G1), 32 (G2) Narathiwat 1 Yes
Pho Luang Uppatham school PP FE PUB Patani Malay (mfa) 10 (K1+2) Lavua 1 Yes
Ban Pho Kong school PP, PR FE PUB Patani Malay (mfa) 23(K1), 39(K2), 35(G4), 30(G5), 29(G6/1), 30(G6/2) Northern Khmer 6 (at the Kindergarten 1-2 but have some teaching materials) 4 (at the primary level Grade 4-6) Yes
FAL - OBEC pilot Project school Watwangwiwegaram school PP, PR (LPR=lower primary; UPR=upper primary) FE PUB Mon (mnw) PP: F:134 + M:112 = 246 LPR: F:166 + M:167 = 333 UPR: F:92 + M:103 = 195 Sangklaburi, Kanchanaburi province 1, 2, 4, 7 (2 for PP; 4 for UPR) 72 big cultural Scenes; 56 Picture stories; 146 titles of Big books in Mon and 68 titles in Thai; 120 titles of Small Books in Mon and 72 in Thai
Ban Pui school PP, PR FE PUB Pwo Karen (pww) PP: F:21 + M:24 = 45 LPR: F:41 + M:34 = 75 UPR: F:18 + M:24 = 42 Hod district, Chiangmai province 1, 2, 7, 4 (2 for PP; 4 for UPR) 22 Big Cultural Scenes; 35 Picture stories; 111 titlse of Big Boks in Pwo Karen; 139 titles of Small Books in Pwo Karen
Pan Din Thong school PP, PR FE PUB Hmong Daw (mww) PP: F:58 + M:40 = 98 LPR: F:82 + M:68 = 150 UPR: F:22 + M:41 = 63 Therng district, Chiangrai province 1, 2, 7, 4 (2 for PP; 4 for UPR) 19 Big Cultural Scenes; 54 Picture Stories; 113 titles of Big Books in Hmong and 165 titles of Small Books in Hmong
Rak Pan Din school PP, PR FE PUB Hmong Daw (mww) PP: F:30 + M:23 = 53 LPR: F:41 + M:30 = 71 UPR: F:15 + M:17 = 32 Therng district, Chiangrai province 1, 2, 7, 4 (2 for PP; 4 for UPR) Ibid
Huai Han school PP, PR FE PUB Hmong Daw (mww) PP: F:48 + M:54 = 102 LPR: F:83 + M:80 = 163 UPR: F:32 + M:48 = 80 Wiang Kaen district, Chiangrai province 1, 2, 7, 4 (2 for PP4 for UPR) Ibid
Huai Ku school PP, PR FE PUB Hmong Daw (mww) PP: F:68 + M:71 = 139 LPR: F:90 + M:99 = 189 UPR: F:28 + M:23 = 51 Wiang Kaen district, Chiangrai province 1, 2, 7, 4 (2 for PP; 4 for UPR) Ibid
MLE expansion school Cha Kue school PP FE PUB Lahu (lhu) F:6 + M:5 = 11 Muang district, Chiangrai province 2,5,7 12 Big Cultural Scenes; 34 picture stories NB. The no. of students is chenged due to the current no. of KG1, and MTB-MLE is only implemented to KG1 because the school is not able to finish the KG2 materials. The no. given efore is now students in KG2
Ban Pa Kwang Witaya school PP FE PUB Lahu (lhu) F:7 + M:11 = 18 Muang district, Chiangrai province 2,5,7 Ibid
Ban Huai Uen school PP FE PUB Lahu (lhu) F:3 + M:9 = 12 Mae Fa Luang district, Chiangrai province 2,5,7 Ibid
Ban Huai Kong school PP FE PUB Karen, S'gaw (ksw) F:1 + M:5 = 6 Om Koi district, Chiangmai province 2,5,7 8 Big Cultural Scenes; 16 Picture Stories; Ibid
Ban Mae Ang Kang PP FE PUB Pwo Karen F:27 + M:17 = 44 Om Koi district, Chiangmai province 2,5,7 10 Big Cultural Scenes; 36 Picture Stories
Ban Huai Kung PP FE PUB Karen, S'gaw (ksw) F:2 + M:6 = 8 Sop Muei district, Mae Hong Sorn province 2,5,7 NB. The no. is changed due to the current no. of KG1, and MTB-MLE is only implemented to KG1 because the school is not able to finish the KG2 materials. The no. given before is now KG2
Ban Mae Poon PP FE PUB Karen, S'gaw (ksw) F:7 + M:7 = 14 Mae Sariang district, Mae Hong Sorn province 2,5,7 Ibid
Chao Paw Luang Upatum school PP FE PUB Lawa, Western (lcp) F:3 + M:2 = 5 Mae Sariang district, Mae Hong Sorn province 2,5,7 Ibid
Ban La-oob school PP FE PUB Lawa, Western (lcp) F:9 + M:5 = 14 Mae Sariang district, Mae Hong Sorn province 2,5,7 Ibid
Ban Mae U-Su school PP FE PUB Karen, S'gaw (ksw) F:31 + M:32 = 63 Ta Song Yang district, Tak province 2,5,7 Ibid
Ban Museur school PP FE PUB Karen, S'gaw (ksw), Lahu (lhu) F: 14 + M: 18 = 32 Om Koi district, Chiangmai province 2,5,7 32 Big Cultural Scenes; 80 Picture Stories
Ban Nong Pham school PP FE PUB Lahu Shi (lhi) F: 12 + M:14 = 26 Mae Suai district, Chiangrai province 2,5,7 N/A
Ban Huaj Nam Khao school PP FE PUB Karen, S'gaw (ksw) F: 15 + M: 15 = 30 Om Koi district, Chiangmai province 2,5,7 18 Big Cultural Scenes; 40 Picture Stories
Ban Khun Tae school PP FE PUB Karen, S'gaw (ksw) F: 14 +M: 5 = 19 Chom Thong district, Chiangmai province 2,5,7 12 Big Cultural Scenes; 40 Picture Stories

Explanations

Name of organisation / institution: 

Give the name of the organisation(s) (NGO, local association, etc) or institution (church, pagoda, temple, university etc.) which is initiating and supporting the action. This can include government agencies and institutions. Please specify type of involvement, e.g. initiator, lead actor, funder and implementer.

Level of schooling:

Identify whether action is at the pre-primary level (PP) or at the primary /elementary level (PR). The mapping is focusing only on these two levels of education.

Formal or Non-formal:

Identify whether action is:

1. in the formal (FE) or non-formal (NFE); and
2. in the government education system (Govt) or outside the government system by non-state providers (NSP).

Public or private:

Identify whether the action is happening in the public education (PUB) system or private (PRI). If this does not apply to your country, write n/a.

Which language:

Give the name of the local or minority language(s) which the action includes. If possible, see your country’s section on the Ethnologue.com (http://www.ethnologue.com/country_index.asp?place=Asia) and find the relevant 3-letter ISO language code for these languages.

Number of children:

Give the number of children reached by school level (pre-primary and primary/elementary). Please disaggregate by gender (i.e. M: and F:),

Location of action:

Give sub-national location of action(s) either province or district

Use of language in classroom:

Identify how language is used in the classroom by using the descriptors below. Choose the most appropriate one. You can choose more than one.

1. Language of instruction (LOI) is the learners’ mother tongue (MT or L1)  and their second language (L2) .
2. Language of instruction is the mother tongue only.
3. The second language is officially the language of instruction.
4. Language of instruction is the second language with MT as subject.
5. Mother tongue is used orally, no written materials – officially.
6. Mother tongue is used orally, no written materials – unofficially.
7. Second language (L2) is taught as second language.

Materials in classroom:

Are there teaching and learning materials in MT in classroom? Yes or no. If yes, estimate the number of titles in MT.