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Thailand

Year Conducted: 2015, 2012

Summary

More than 70 languages are spoken in Thailand. Standard Thai is the de facto official and national language of Thailand, and the medium of instruction at all levels of education. In some areas, six (6) non-dominant languages are taught as a subject in the additional local studies subject in schools.  Some NDLs are used in non – formal education, mainly adult literacy, run largely by local NGOs. MLE Mapping exercise identified ten (10) minority languages are currently used as medium of instruction in classrooms. These classrooms are provided by formal, public pre-primary and primary schools in Southern (Malay), Eastern (Northern Khmer), Western (Mon - Kanchanaburi) and Northern (Hmong Daw, Pwo Karen, Mae Hong Son Lawa, Khmu) Thailand. Thailand’s first National Language Policy provides official support for NDLs in education, also as media of instruction in bilingual and multilingual education. The policy was signed by the Prime Minister in 2010.

Quick Facts
Name of Organization/ Institution Level of Schooling Formal or Non-formal Public or Private Which Languages Number of Children reached by level of schooling Location Use of language in classroom (see explanations below) Materials in classroom
Mahidol UniversityBan Prajan School PP, PR FE PUB Pattani Malay (mfa) KG.1: 27, kG.2: 28, G.1: 34, G.2: 27 Pattani 1 KG. 1
Cultural scene = 12 Picture story = 36 Listening story = 80 Song = 20 Alphabet Chart = 1 Pre - primer = 1 Thai TPR vocabulary = 192 Educational games (Math) = 40
KG. 2
Cultural scene = 7 Picture story = 5 Listening story = 40 Song = 20 PM primer = 1 Big book = 34 Small books (level 1) = 78 Small books (level 2) = 22 Thai TPR vocabulary = 960 Educational game (Math) = 20
G. 1
Cultural scene = 10 Picture story = 43 Listening story = 21 Song (PM) = 5 Song (Thai) = 5 Big book (PM) = 5 Big book (Thai) = 9 Small book (PM) = 20 Small book (Thai) = 20 Small book (diglot) = 20 Transfer primer = 1 English TPR vocabulary Picture card Word card
G. 2
Cultural scene = 4 Listening story = 10 Song (PM) = 5 Song (Thai) = 5 Big books(PM) = 2 Big book (Thai) = 9 Small book (PM) = 3 Reading book (PM)= 35 Reading book (Thai) = 10 Reading book(diglot) = 35 Thai Primer = 1 English TPR vocabulary Picture card Word card
Buang Nomsai School PP, PR FE PUB Pattani Malay (mfa) KG.1: 28, kG.2: 17, G.1: 23, G.2: 19 Yala 1
Thairat Witthaya School PP, PR FE PUB Pattani Malay (mfa) KG.1: 26, kG.2: 21, G.1: 41, G.2: 23 Narathiwat 1
Tamalang Nua School PP, PR FE PUB Satun Malay (meo) KG.1: 23, kG.2: 21, G.1: 24, G.2: 32 Satun 1 Use the same materials as Patani Malay school (above) but translated into Satun Malay
Bannasophit School PP FE PUB Khmu (kjg) KG.1: 27 Nan 1 Cultural scene = 5 Picture story = 3 Listening story = 11
Pho Luang Uppatham 10 School PP FE PUB Mae Hong Son Lawa (lcp) KG.1: 8, kG.2: 5 Mae Hongson 1 Big book = 28 Small book = 15 Cultural scene = 2 Picture story = 14 Listening story = 20 Primer = 1 Song = 20 Local game= 5
Ban Pho Kong School PP FE PUB Northern Khmer (kxm) KG.1: 30, kG.2: 36 Surin 1 Big book = 35 Small book = 45 Cultural scene = 26 Picture story = 15 Listening story = 25 Primer = 2 Song = 80
Wat Khlong Phlu School PR FE PUB Chong (cog) G.4: 43, G.5: 46, G.6: 46 Chanthaburi 4 Big book = 40 Small book = 32 Cultural scene = 7 Picture story = 7 Listening story = 45 Primer = 2 Song = 25
Wat Takhian Thong School PR FE PUB Chong (cog) G.4: 26, G.5: 15, G.6: 18 Chanthaburi 4
Wat Nam Khun School PR FE PUB Chong (cog) G.4: 19, G.5: 20, G.6: 22 Chanthaburi 4
Wat Thung Kabin School PR FE PUB Chong (cog) G.4: 8 Chanthaburi 4
Wang Ai Khong School PR FE PUB Nyahkur (cbn) G.4 - 6: 17 Chaiyaphum 4 Big book = 50 Small book = 50 Cultural scene = 1 Picture story = 2 Listening story = 4 Primer = 1 Song = 7 Special Picture story = 1
Ban Nong Muang School PR FE PUB Sộ (sss) G.4: 16, G.5: 13, G.6: 17 Sakonnakhon 4 Big book = 13 Small book = 55 Primer = 1
Wat Muang School PR FE PUB Mon (mnw) G.4: 17, G.5: 16 Ratchaburi 4 Big book = 20 Small book = 102 Primer = 1
Ban Dan Chumphon School PR FE PUB Chong (cog) G.4: 10, G.5: 17, G.6: 16 Trat 4 Big book = 5 Cultural scene = 2 Picture story = 7 Listening story = 7 Song = 3
Ban Wuen Buk School PR FE PUB Western Bru (brv) G.4: 11, G.5: 12 Ubonratchathani 4 Big book = 4 Cultural scene = 1 Picture story = 7 Song = 1
Ban Mai Nong Bua School PP, PR FE PUB Mandarin Chinese (cmn) KG.1/1: 26, KG.1/2: 23, KG.2/1: 38, KG.2/2: 42, KG.2/3: 19 Chiangmai 5 Cultural scene =11 Picture story = 11 Listening story = 20 Song = 10
Foundation for Applied Linguistics (FAL) PP FE PUB Mon (mnw) 220 Kanchanaburi 2 Yes
Pwo Northern Karen (pww) 80 Hod and Omkoi communities in Chiang Mai Pronvince 2 Yes
Hmong Daw (mww) 450 Terng and WiangKaen communities in Chiang Rai Province 2 Yes
Akha (ahk) 20 Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai 2 Yes
Lahu (lhu) 25 Chiang Rai 2 Yes
PR FE PUB Mon (mnw) 105 Kanchanaburi 1 Yes
Lead actors:
Office of the Basic Education Commission, together with Foundation for Applied Linguistic, and Mahidol University ,

Implementer: Office of the Basic Education Commission, together with Foundation for Applied Linguistic, Mahidol University , Regional Education Offices, and Schools

Initiators: 1.Communities 2.Foundation for Applied Linguistic

Funders: 1.Office of the Basic Education Commission, 2.Foundation for Applied Linguistic, and others 3.Mahidol University ,and others 4.UNICEF
PP to PR FE PUB Mon (mnw) 573 Children (PP 1-2 and PR G.1-3) 1 school in Kanchana Buri 1 Reading Books : Big Books , Small Books; Songs; Games; Story Telling; Big Pictures; Grammar Books; Lesson Books; Real Things from the community [depense on what teacher teach]
Pattani Malay (mfa), Satun Malay (meo) 500 Children (PP. 1-2 and PR G. 1-3), 4 schools in Pattani, Ya-la, Narathiwat, Satun 1
Hmong Daw (mww) 814 Children ( PP.1-2 and PR G. 1-2) 4 schools in Chiang Rai 1
Pwo Northern Karen (pww) 77 Children (PP. 1-2 and PR G. 1-2) 1 school in Chiang Mai 1
Northern Khmer (kxm) 120 Children (K. 1-2 and G 4-5) 1 school in Surin 1

Explanations

Name of organisation / institution: 

Give the name of the organisation(s) (NGO, local association, etc) or institution (church, pagoda, temple, university etc.) which is initiating and supporting the action. This can include government agencies and institutions. Please specify type of involvement, e.g. initiator, lead actor, funder and implementer.

Level of schooling:

Identify whether action is at the pre-primary level (PP) or at the primary /elementary level (PR). The mapping is focusing only on these two levels of education.

Formal or Non-formal:

Identify whether action is:

1. in the formal (FE) or non-formal (NFE); and
2. in the government education system (Govt) or outside the government system by non-state providers (NSP).

Public or private:

Identify whether the action is happening in the public education (PUB) system or private (PRI). If this does not apply to your country, write n/a.

Which language:

Give the name of the local or minority language(s) which the action includes. If possible, see your country’s section on the Ethnologue.com (http://www.ethnologue.com/country_index.asp?place=Asia) and find the relevant 3-letter ISO language code for these languages.

Number of children:

Give the number of children reached by school level (pre-primary and primary/elementary). Please disaggregate by gender (i.e. M: and F:),

Location of action:

Give sub-national location of action(s) either province or district

Use of language in classroom:

Identify how language is used in the classroom by using the descriptors below. Choose the most appropriate one. You can choose more than one.

1. Language of instruction (LOI) is the learners’ mother tongue (MT or L1)  and their second language (L2) .
2. Language of instruction is the mother tongue only.
3. The second language is officially the language of instruction.
4. Language of instruction is the second language with MT as subject.
5. Mother tongue is used orally, no written materials – officially.
6. Mother tongue is used orally, no written materials – unofficially.
7. Second language (L2) is taught as second language.

Materials in classroom:

Are there teaching and learning materials in MT in classroom? Yes or no. If yes, estimate the number of titles in MT.