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Papua New Guinea has over 800 different languages of instruction for their schools

The education governance landscape of the Asia-Pacific region can be characterized as largely decentralized which has resulted in significant changes to the relationship between the central level, principally the education ministry, and its affiliations at local levels, for example, provincial and district education authorities. This governance structure also changes the role of the central government, local governments and other non-state actors in management, financing and delivery of education services.

Although seen as the most popular education governance reform policy for many, decentralization does not always result in greater efficiency, effectiveness, empowerment and overall, better learning outcomes. Nor does it translate directly to greater access to and quality of education. Some highly centralized education systems achieve better outcomes, and some do not. Some decentralized systems achieve results, and some do not. These mixed outcomes have intensified policy debate throughout the region on whether decentralization should be pursued further, or whether some or all the elements of decentralization introduced so far should, in fact, be reversed. In this regard, policy makers and sector managers at the country level must address how best to decentralize or recentralize their education systems to achieve real educational outcomes at school and system levels.  

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