In Central Asia , attempts to establish WS/GS are making some progress. International foundations and multilateral organizations have stepped in to support efforts to introduce training courses by women's NGOs. However, mainstreaming or establishing WS/GS in university curricula has proven piecemeal. In Tajikistan , shortly after independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991, the Republic ratified CEDAW. Preparations for research reports on the gender order in the country have called attention to women's issues alongside the creation of a state gender policy by the Bureau of Women in Development with support from UNDP.
Beginning in 1999, gender-related courses were gradually introduced in universities, and in 2000, the Centre of Gender Studies was put up in the Open Society Institute for teacher training on WS/GS. This Centre began to provide training and seminars for teachers from other universities on gender issues. In the Tajik Academy of Sciences, seven post-graduate students recently employed the sociology of gender as a framework in order to explain and analyze various aspects of gender relations in their society. While research and publications on women's and gender issues have increased in the country in the last five years, access to academic literature –translated in local languages – remains a problem.
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