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Database of Selected Environmental Treaties

A table of detailed country membership to selected environmental treaties in the Asia-Pacific Region can be found here.


Air Pollution:

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
Open for signature: 13 November 1979
Entered into force: 16 March 1983

  • Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions:
    The 1985 Helsinki Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 per cent - Helsinki
    Open for signature: 14 June 1994
    Entered into force: 5 August 1998
  • Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs):
    The 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) - Aarhus
    Open for signature: 24 June 1998
    Entered into force: 23 October 2003
  • Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides: The 1988 Sofia Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or their Transboundary Fluxes- Sofia
    Open for signature: 31 October 1988
    Entered into force: 14 February 1991



The Antarctic Treaty - Washington D.C.
Open for signature: 1 December 1959
Entered into force: 23 June 1961



Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) - Rio de Janeiro
Open for signature: 5 June 1992 
Entered into force: 29 December 1993


Climate Change: 

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Open for signature: 9 May 1992
Entered into force: 21 March 1994


Desertification (Regional Implementation Annex for Asia):

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) - Paris
Open for signature: 14 October 1994
Entered into force: 26 December 1996


Endangered Species:

Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) - Washington
Open for signature: 3 March 1973
Entered into force: 1 July 1975


Environmental Modification:

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD) - Geneva
Open for signature: 10 December 1976
Entered into force: 5 October 1978


Hazardous Wastes:

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal (UNEP Basel Convention) - Basel
Open for signature: 22 March 1989
Entered into force: 5 May 1992


Law of the Sea:

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS) - Montego Bay
Open for signature: 10 December 1982
Entered into force: 16 November 1994


Marine Dumping:

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention) - London
Open for signature: 29 December 1972
Entered into force: 30 August 1975


Marine Life Conservation:

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas - Geneva
Open for signature: 29 April 1958
Entered into force: 20 March 1966


Ozone Layer Protection:

The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer - Montreal
Open for signature: 16 September 1987
Entered into force: 1 January 1989


Prior Informed Consent:

The Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, 2004 -Rotterdam
Open for signature: 11 September 1998
Entered into force: 24 February 2004


Ship Pollution:

Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)
Open for signature: 17 February 1978
Entered into force: 2 October 1983


Sustainable development:

Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future
Annex to UN General Assembly Resolution 42/187
Adopted on 11 December 1987

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
UN General Assembly Resolution A/CONF.151/26 (Vol.1)
Adopted on 12 August 1992 


Tropical Timber:

International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983 - Geneva
Open for signature: 18 November 1983
Entered into force: 1 April 1985

International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994 - Geneva
Open for signature: 26 January 1994
Entered into force: 1 January 1997  



Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat - Ramsar
Open for signature: 2 February 1971
Entered into force: 21 December 1975



International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICW) - Washington D.C.
Open for signature: 2 December 1946
Entered into force: 10 November 1948